Legal Personhood and Rights of Nature

May 2022

  • Happy the Elephant Has Lawyers Arguing to Free Her From the Zoo: Lawsuits also argue that lakes and wild rice have legal rights, too
    • Missouri bill seeks to block people from suing on behalf of ecosystems
    • Idaho passed a bill that bans environmental elements, artificial intelligence, nonhuman animals, and inanimate objects from gaining personhood
    • Orange County, Florida voters approved a county charter amendment in Nov 2020 giving rights to local bodies of water. State of Florida now argues a bill signed into law in June 2020 prohibited local government entities like counties from granting legal rights to plants, animals, or bodies of water. Proponents of the county amendment plan to argue the Florida constitution empowers local government entities to pass laws to protect nature, which includes the rights in the Nov 2020 amendment.

April 2022

March 2022

February 2022

November 2021

  • Wesche, P. (2021). Rights of Nature in Practice: A Case Study on the Impacts of the Colombian Atrato River Decision. Journal of Environmental Law, 33(3), 531–555.

September 2021

January 2021

  • Guayasamin, J. M., Vandegrift, R., Policha, T., Encalada, A. C., Greene, N., Ríos-Touma, B., Endara, L., Cárdenas, R. E., Larreátegui, F., Baquero, L., Arcos, I., Cueva, J., Peck, M., Alfonso-Cortes, F., Thomas, D., DeCoux, J., Levy, E., & Roy, B. A. (2021). Biodiversity conservation: Local and global consequences of the application of “rights of nature” by Ecuador. Neotropical Biodiversity, 7(1), 541–545.

December 2020

November 2020

September 2020

August 2018

March 2015

  • Sajeva, G. (2015). Rights with limits: Biocultural rights – between self-determination and conservation of the environment. Journal of Human Rights and the Environment, 6(1), 30–54.



  • Marcus, J., Kurucz, E. C., & Colbert, B. A. (2010). Conceptions of the Business-Society-Nature Interface: Implications for Management Scholarship. Business & Society, 49(3), 402–438.


  • Starik, M. (1995). Should trees have managerial standing? Toward stakeholder status for non-human nature. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(3), 207–217.